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Cleopatra is the queen of ancient Egypt, and one of the most famous rulers in history. Cleopatra inspired generations by her charming and influential personality, making her a historical icon and a symbol for women’s strength and power throughout history. Cleopatra was a material for Shakespeare’s “Caesar and Cleopatra”, John Dryden’s “All for Love” in 1677, and George Bernard Shaw’s “Caesar and Cleopatra”. Queen Cleopatra’s character appeared in Hollywood cinema for the first time, when American actress Elizabeth Taylor embodied her role in a film that tells the story of her life in 1963.

Cleopatra was the last of the Ptolemaic kings who ruled Egypt. She was the daughter of King Ptolemy XII. In 51 BC, her father died, leaving the throne to both Cleopatra, 18 years old, and her brother Ptolemy XIII, 10 years old. After the death of her father, she married her brother Ptolemy XIII as this was a custom at the time to preserve the royal blood. After a period of dispute between Cleopatra and her husband, she tried to form an army and fight her brother, but the events ended up with expelling Cleopatra from Egypt. Egypt was, at the time, a kingdom under the Roman protection, Egypt was so important to Rome as it was the main source of wheat for the Roman people.

Cleopatra was angry and wanted to come back to Egypt and take the rule from her brother. At that time, Julius Caesar, the ruler of Rome, arrived in Alexandria. Ptolemy XIII was opposing to Caesar and the rule of Rome. Cleopatra took advantage of this opposition, and approached Caesar to offer him cooperation against her brother. Caesar fell in love with Cleopatra’s charm and character, and made her close to him. He fought Ptolemy XIII and killed him. Caesar was in love with Cleopatra so they got married. Cleopatra traveled to Rome with Julius Caesar to announce their marriage there, but during their stay in Rome, a group of Roman senators conspired and killed Julius Caesar. During this time, Marc Antonio was appointed the administrator of Rome. 

Cleopatra returned to Egypt, and Marc Antonio joined forces with Octavius ​​and Lepidus, to rule Rome together. After the death of Julius Caesar, Marc Antonio met Cleopatra, and was enthused by her beauty and personality, Anthony fell in love with Cleopatra, and they had one of the most famous love affairs in history. They finally got married and moved to Alexandria to start the rule of Cleopatra over Egypt, with the full support from Marc Antonio. 

Octavius, the great Roman leader, was opposed to the marriage between Marc Antonio and Cleopatra, as the tradition in Rome rejected this kind of marriage, especially because Cleopatra was not Roman. Marc Antonio celebrated marrying Cleopatra on the streets of Alexandria. Antonio went further and announced that he would distribute his land in Rome between Cleopatra and the three children he had from her. These acts stirred up anger in Rome, where rumors circulated that Antonio would move the capital of the Roman empire from Rome to Alexandria. Octavius ​​sent Antonio to ask him to stop these acts, or else he would have to fight him as an enemy. 

Octavius ​​fought with Antonio and Cleopatra. And the end, Antonio was defeated after a fierce battle called the Battle of Actium. Antonio committed suicide after he threw himself on his sword in accordance with ancient Roman tradition. There are many versions and many stories about how Cleopatra died, but it is likely that Cleopatra committed suicide by surrendering to a Cobra snake to bite her, to prevent the Romans from reaching her. Egypt then fell under the Roman rule. 

Cleopatra ruled Egypt for twenty years and won the heart of two of the greatest men of the time: Julius Caesar and Marcus Antonius. Cleopatra was the last ruler of the Ptolemies in Egypt, and surpassed those who preceded her with intelligence, prudence and ambition.


Pharaonic, Egypt, Cleopatra, Roman Еmpire,
Cultural myths, Ancient Egypt, Alexandria,


Cleopatra was the last of the Ptolemaic kings who ruled Egypt.

  1. а) True
  2. b) False

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